4 Different Ways to Work With Nebula Graph in Apache Spark

A common question many Nebula Graph community users have asked is how to apply our graph database to Spark-based analytics. People want to use our powerful graph processing capabilities in conjunction with Spark, which is one of the most popular engines for data analytics.

In this article, I will try to walk you through four different ways that you can make Nebula Graph and Apache Spark work together. The first three approaches will use Nebula Graph’s three libraries: Spark Connector, Nebula Exchange, and Nebula Algorithm, while the fourth way will leverage PySpark, an interface for Spark in Python.

I have introduced quite a few data importing methods for Nebula Graph in this video, including three methods that import data to Spark. In this article, I’d like to dive deeper into these Spark-related projects, hoping it will provide more help if you want to connect Nebula Graph with Spark.


  • Nebula Spark Connector is a Spark library to enable Spark applications to read from and write to Nebula Graph in the form of data frames.
  • Nebula Exchange, built on top of Nebula Spark Connector, is a Spark library and application to migrate different data sources like(MySQL, Neo4j, PostgreSQL, ClickHouse, Hive, etc.) to Nebula Graph. Besides writing directly to Nebula Graph, it can also optionally generate SST files to be ingested into Nebula Graph to offload the storage computation from the Nebula Graph cluster to the Spark cluster.
  • Nebula Algorithm, built on top of Nebula Spark Connector and GraphX, is a Spark library to run graph algorithms(PageRank, LPA, etc) on top of graph data from Nebula Graph.
  • If you want to make Spark and Nebula Graph work together using Python, PySpark is the go-to solution, which I will cover in the last section.


Nebula Spark Connector is a Spark Lib to enable spark application reading from and writing to Nebula Graph in the form of a data frame.

Read Data From Nebula Graph

In order to read data from Nebula Graph, Nebula Spark Connector will scan all storage instances in a Nebula Graph cluster that contains the given label(TAG). You can use the withLabel parameter to indicate the label. For example: withLabel("player"). You can also optionally specify the properties of the vertex: withReturnCols(List("name", "age")).

Once you have provided all required properties, you can run spark.read.nebula.loadVerticesToDFwhich will return the data frame of the vertex from the Nebula Graph.

def readVertex(spark: SparkSession): Unit = {
    LOG.info("start to read nebula vertices")
    val config =
    val nebulaReadVertexConfig: ReadNebulaConfig = ReadNebulaConfig
      .withReturnCols(List("name", "age"))
    val vertex = spark.read.nebula(config, nebulaReadVertexConfig).loadVerticesToDF()
    println("vertex count: " + vertex.count())

It’s similar for the writer part and one big difference here is the writing path is done via GraphD as the underlying Spark Connector is shooting nGQL INSERT queries:

def writeVertex(spark: SparkSession): Unit = {

   LOG.info("start to write nebula vertices")
   val df = spark.read.json("example/src/main/resources/vertex")

   val config = getNebulaConnectionConfig()
   val nebulaWriteVertexConfig: WriteNebulaVertexConfig = WriteNebulaVertexConfig

   df.write.nebula(config, nebulaWriteVertexConfig).writeVertices()

Hands-on Spark Connector

Prerequisites: I will assume that you are running the following procedure on a Linux machine with an internet connection. Ideally, you will have Docker and Docker Compose installed.

Bootstrapping a Nebula Graph Cluster

Firstly, let’s deploy Nebula Graph v3.0 and Nebula Studio using Nebula-Up, which will run a script to install the two tools using Docker and Docker Compose. The script will automatically install Docker and Docker Compose for you if you don’t already have them installed. But to make sure you get the best experience, you can pre-install Docker and Docker Compose on your machine manually.

curl -fsSL nebula-up.siwei.io/install.sh | bash -s -- v3.0

Once this is done, we can connect to the Nebula Graph instance with Nebula Console, the command line client for Nebula Graph.

  • Enter the container with Nebula Console
nebula-console -addr graphd -port 9669 -user root -p nebula

ADD HOSTS "storaged0":9779,"storaged1":9779,"storaged2":9779;

Creating a Spark Playground

It is very easy to create a Spark environment using Docker thanks to Big data Europe, which provided a Spark docker image.

docker run --name spark-master-0 --network nebula-docker-compose_nebula-net 
    -h spark-master-0 -e ENABLE_INIT_DAEMON=false -d 
    -v ${PWD}/:/root 

Using this YMAL file, we will create a container named spark-master-0 with built-in Hadoop 2.7 and spark 2.4.5. The container is connected to the Nebula Graph cluster in a docker network named nebula-docker-compose_nebula-net. It will also map the current path to /root of the spark container.

Then, we can access the Spark environment container with:

docker exec -it spark-master-0 bash

Optionally, we can install mvn inside the container to enable maven build/packaging:

docker exec -it spark-master-0 bash
# in the container shell

export MAVEN_VERSION=3.5.4
export MAVEN_HOME=/usr/lib/mvn

wget http://archive.apache.org/dist/maven/maven-3/$MAVEN_VERSION/binaries/apache-maven-$MAVEN_VERSION-bin.tar.gz && 
  tar -zxvf apache-maven-$MAVEN_VERSION-bin.tar.gz && 
  rm apache-maven-$MAVEN_VERSION-bin.tar.gz && 
  mv apache-maven-$MAVEN_VERSION /usr/lib/mvn

which /usr/lib/mvn/bin/mvn

Run Spark Connector

In this section, I will show you how to build the Nebula Graph Spark Connector from its source code.

git clone https://github.com/vesoft-inc/nebula-spark-connector.git

docker exec -it spark-master-0 bash
cd /root/nebula-spark-connector

/usr/lib/mvn/bin/mvn install -Dgpg.skip -Dmaven.javadoc.skip=true -Dmaven.test.skip=true

vi example/src/main/scala/com/vesoft/nebula/examples/connector/NebulaSparkReaderExample.scala

In this file, we will put the following code, where two functions readVertex and readEdges was created on the basketballplayer graph space:

package com.vesoft.nebula.examples.connector

import com.facebook.thrift.protocol.TCompactProtocol
import com.vesoft.nebula.connector.connector.NebulaDataFrameReader
import com.vesoft.nebula.connector.{NebulaConnectionConfig, ReadNebulaConfig}
import org.apache.spark.SparkConf
import org.apache.spark.sql.SparkSession
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory

object NebulaSparkReaderExample {

  private val LOG = LoggerFactory.getLogger(this.getClass)

  def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {

    val sparkConf = new SparkConf
      .set("spark.serializer", "org.apache.spark.serializer.KryoSerializer")
    val spark = SparkSession



  def readVertex(spark: SparkSession): Unit = {
    LOG.info("start to read nebula vertices")
    val config =
    val nebulaReadVertexConfig: ReadNebulaConfig = ReadNebulaConfig
      .withReturnCols(List("name", "age"))
    val vertex = spark.read.nebula(config, nebulaReadVertexConfig).loadVerticesToDF()
    println("vertex count: " + vertex.count())

  def readEdges(spark: SparkSession): Unit = {
    LOG.info("start to read nebula edges")

    val config =
    val nebulaReadEdgeConfig: ReadNebulaConfig = ReadNebulaConfig
    val edge = spark.read.nebula(config, nebulaReadEdgeConfig).loadEdgesToDF()
    println("edge count: " + edge.count())


Then build it:

cd example
/usr/lib/mvn/bin/mvn install -Dgpg.skip -Dmaven.javadoc.skip=true -Dmaven.test.skip=true

Execute it on Spark:

/spark/bin/spark-submit --master "local" 
    --class com.vesoft.nebula.examples.connector.NebulaSparkReaderExample 
    --driver-memory 16g target/example-3.0-SNAPSHOT.jar

And the result should be like this:

22/04/19 07:29:34 INFO DAGScheduler: Job 1 finished: show at NebulaSparkReaderExample.scala:57, took 0.199310 s
|_vertexId|              name|age|
|player105|       Danny Green| 31|
|player109|    Tiago Splitter| 34|
|player111|        David West| 38|
|player118| Russell Westbrook| 30|
|player143|Kristaps Porzingis| 23|
|player114|     Tracy McGrady| 39|
|player150|       Luka Doncic| 20|
|player103|          Rudy Gay| 32|
|player113|   Dejounte Murray| 29|
|player121|        Chris Paul| 33|
|player128|   Carmelo Anthony| 34|
|player130|       Joel Embiid| 25|
|player136|        Steve Nash| 45|
|player108|        Boris Diaw| 36|
|player122|    DeAndre Jordan| 30|
|player123|       Ricky Rubio| 28|
|player139|        Marc Gasol| 34|
|player142|     Klay Thompson| 29|
|player145|      JaVale McGee| 31|
|player102| LaMarcus Aldridge| 33|
only showing top 20 rows

22/04/19 07:29:36 INFO DAGScheduler: Job 4 finished: show at NebulaSparkReaderExample.scala:82, took 0.135543 s
|   _srcId|   _dstId|_rank|degree|
|player105|player100|    0|    70|
|player105|player104|    0|    83|
|player105|player116|    0|    80|
|player109|player100|    0|    80|
|player109|player125|    0|    90|
|player118|player120|    0|    90|
|player118|player131|    0|    90|
|player143|player150|    0|    90|
|player114|player103|    0|    90|
|player114|player115|    0|    90|
|player114|player140|    0|    90|
|player150|player120|    0|    80|
|player150|player137|    0|    90|
|player150|player143|    0|    90|
|player103|player102|    0|    70|
|player113|player100|    0|    99|
|player113|player101|    0|    99|
|player113|player104|    0|    99|
|player113|player105|    0|    99|
|player113|player106|    0|    99|
only showing top 20 rows

More examples are under the Spark Connector repo, including one for GraphX. Please note that in GraphX ​​it is assumed that the vertex ID is numeric, and you will need to convert string ID types into numeric on the fly. Please refer to the example in Nebula Algorithom on how to mitigate that.

Nebula Exchange

Nebula Exchange is a Spark library that can read data from multiple sources and write it to either Nebula Graph directly or a Nebula Graph SST Files.

To use Nebula Exchange, we need to configure “where to fetch data sources” and “where to write graph data to” in a conf file and submit the exchange package to spark with the conf file being specified.

Now let’s do a hands-on test on Nebula Exchange with the same environment we created in the previous chapter.

Hands-on Nebula Exchange

Here, we are using Nebula Exchange to consume data from a CSV file, in which the first column is the Vertex ID, and the second and third columns are “name” and “age“, respectively.

player800,"Foo Bar",23
player801,"Another Name",21

  • Let’s log into the Spark container we created in the previous chapter, and download the Jar package of Nebula Exchange:
docker exec -it spark-master bash
cd /root/

wget https://github.com/vesoft-inc/nebula-exchange/releases/download/v3.0.0/nebula-exchange_spark_2.4-3.0.0.jar

  • Create a conf file named exchange.conf in the HOCONformat, where:
    • under .nebulainformation regarding Nebula Graph Cluster is configured;
    • under .tagsinformation regarding Vertices like how required fields are reflected in our data source(in this case, it’s the CSV file) is configured.
  # Spark relation config
  spark: {
    app: {
      name: Nebula Exchange


    driver: {
      cores: 1
      maxResultSize: 1G

    executor: {
        memory: 1G

      max: 16

  # Nebula Graph relation config
  nebula: {
      meta:["metad0:9559", "metad1:9559", "metad2:9559"]
    user: root
    pswd: nebula
    space: basketballplayer

    # parameters for SST import, not required
        hdfs.namenode: "hdfs://localhost:9000"

    # nebula client connection parameters
    connection {
      # socket connect & execute timeout, unit: millisecond
      timeout: 30000

    error: {
      # max number of failures, if the number of failures is bigger than max, then exit the application.
      max: 32
      # failed import job will be recorded in output path
      output: /tmp/errors

    # use google's RateLimiter to limit the requests send to NebulaGraph
    rate: {
      # the stable throughput of RateLimiter
      limit: 1024
      # Acquires a permit from RateLimiter, unit: MILLISECONDS
      # if it can't be obtained within the specified timeout, then give up the request.
      timeout: 1000

  # Processing tags
  # There are tag config examples for different dataSources.
  tags: [

    # HDFS csv
    # Import mode is client, just change type.sink to sst if you want to use client import mode.
      name: player
      type: {
        source: csv
        sink: client
      path: "file:///root/player.csv"
      # if your csv file has no header, then use _c0,_c1,_c2,.. to indicate fields
      fields: [_c1, _c2]
      nebula.fields: [name, age]
      vertex: {
      separator: ","
      header: false
      batch: 256
      partition: 32


  • Finally, let’s create the player.csv and exchange.conf files, which should be listed as follow:
# ls -l

-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          1912 Apr 19 08:21 exchange.conf
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root     157814140 Apr 19 08:17 nebula-exchange_spark_2.4-3.0.0.jar
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root            52 Apr 19 08:06 player.csv

  • And we could call Exchange as:
/spark/bin/spark-submit --master local 
    --class com.vesoft.nebula.exchange.Exchange nebula-exchange_spark_2.4-3.0.0.jar 
    -c exchange.conf

And the result should be like this:

22/04/19 08:22:08 INFO Exchange$: import for tag player cost time: 1.32 s
22/04/19 08:22:08 INFO Exchange$: Client-Import: batchSuccess.player: 2
22/04/19 08:22:08 INFO Exchange$: Client-Import: batchFailure.player: 0

Please refer to Nebula Exchange documentation and configuration examples for more data sources. For how to write Spark data into SST files, you can refer to both the documentation and Nebula Exchange SST 2.x Hands-on Guide.

Nebula Algorithm

Built on top of Nebula Spark Connector and GraphX, Nebula Algorithm is a Spark library and application to run graph algorithms(Pagerank, LPA, etc…) on top of graph data in Nebula Graph.

Calling With Spark-submit

When we call Nebula Algorithm with spark-submitfrom the how-to-run perspective, it is quite similar to Nebula-Exchange.

Calling Nebula Algorithm a Library in Code

We can also call Nebula Algorithm in Spark a library. This approach will give you more control over the output format of the algorithm. Also, with this approach, it is possible to perform algorithms for non-numerical vertex ID types, see here.

PySpark for Nebula Graph

Finally, if you want to make Spark and Nebula Graph work together using Python, PySpark is the go-to solution. In this section, I will show you how to connect Spark and Nebula Graph using Nebula Spark Connector with the help of PySpark. PySpark is able to call Java or Scala packages inside Python, and it makes it very easy to use Spark Connector with Python.

Here I am doing this from the PySpark entry point in /spark/bin/pysparkwith Nebula Connector’s Jar package specified with --driver-class-path and --jars

docker exec -it spark-master-0 bash
cd root
wget https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/com/vesoft/nebula-spark-connector/3.0.0/nebula-spark-connector-3.0.0.jar

/spark/bin/pyspark --driver-class-path nebula-spark-connector-3.0.0.jar --jars nebula-spark-connector-3.0.0.jar

Then, rather than pass NebulaConnectionConfig and ReadNebulaConfig to spark.read.nebulawe should instead call spark.read.format("com.vesoft.nebula.connector.NebulaDataSource").


df = spark.read.format(
    "type", "vertex").option(
    "spaceName", "basketballplayer").option(
    "label", "player").option(
    "returnCols", "name,age").option(
    "metaAddress", "metad0:9559").option(
    "partitionNumber", 1).load()

>>> df.show(n=2)
|_vertexId|          name|age|
|player105|   Danny Green| 31|
|player109|Tiago Splitter| 34|

I also made the same connection using Scala even though I almost have zero Scala knowledge. :-


 def loadVerticesToDF(): DataFrame = {
        assert(connectionConfig != null && readConfig != null,
               "nebula config is not set, please call nebula() before loadVerticesToDF")
        val dfReader = reader
          .option(NebulaOptions.TYPE, DataTypeEnum.VERTEX.toString)
          .option(NebulaOptions.SPACE_NAME, readConfig.getSpace)
          .option(NebulaOptions.LABEL, readConfig.getLabel)
          .option(NebulaOptions.PARTITION_NUMBER, readConfig.getPartitionNum)
          .option(NebulaOptions.RETURN_COLS, readConfig.getReturnCols.mkString(","))
          .option(NebulaOptions.NO_COLUMN, readConfig.getNoColumn)
          .option(NebulaOptions.LIMIT, readConfig.getLimit)
          .option(NebulaOptions.META_ADDRESS, connectionConfig.getMetaAddress)
          .option(NebulaOptions.TIMEOUT, connectionConfig.getTimeout)
          .option(NebulaOptions.CONNECTION_RETRY, connectionConfig.getConnectionRetry)
          .option(NebulaOptions.EXECUTION_RETRY, connectionConfig.getExecRetry)
          .option(NebulaOptions.ENABLE_META_SSL, connectionConfig.getEnableMetaSSL)
          .option(NebulaOptions.ENABLE_STORAGE_SSL, connectionConfig.getEnableStorageSSL)
        if (connectionConfig.getEnableStorageSSL || connectionConfig.getEnableMetaSSL) {
          dfReader.option(NebulaOptions.SSL_SIGN_TYPE, connectionConfig.getSignType)
          SSLSignType.withName(connectionConfig.getSignType) match {
            case SSLSignType.CA =>
              dfReader.option(NebulaOptions.CA_SIGN_PARAM, connectionConfig.getCaSignParam)
            case SSLSignType.SELF =>
              dfReader.option(NebulaOptions.SELF_SIGN_PARAM, connectionConfig.getSelfSignParam)

object NebulaOptions {

  /** nebula common config */
  val SPACE_NAME: String    = "spaceName"
  val META_ADDRESS: String  = "metaAddress"
  val GRAPH_ADDRESS: String = "graphAddress"
  val TYPE: String          = "type"
  val LABEL: String         = "label"

  /** connection config */
  val TIMEOUT: String            = "timeout"
  val CONNECTION_RETRY: String   = "connectionRetry"
  val EXECUTION_RETRY: String    = "executionRetry"
  val RATE_TIME_OUT: String      = "reteTimeOut"
  val USER_NAME: String          = "user"
  val PASSWD: String             = "passwd"
  val ENABLE_GRAPH_SSL: String   = "enableGraphSSL"
  val ENABLE_META_SSL: String    = "enableMetaSSL"
  val ENABLE_STORAGE_SSL: String = "enableStorageSSL"
  val SSL_SIGN_TYPE: String      = "sslSignType"
  val CA_SIGN_PARAM: String      = "caSignParam"
  val SELF_SIGN_PARAM: String    = "selfSignParam"

  /** read config */
  val RETURN_COLS: String      = "returnCols"
  val NO_COLUMN: String        = "noColumn"
  val PARTITION_NUMBER: String = "partitionNumber"
  val LIMIT: String            = "limit"

  /** write config */
  val RATE_LIMIT: String   = "rateLimit"
  val VID_POLICY: String   = "vidPolicy"
  val SRC_POLICY: String   = "srcPolicy"
  val DST_POLICY: String   = "dstPolicy"
  val VERTEX_FIELD         = "vertexField"
  val SRC_VERTEX_FIELD     = "srcVertexField"
  val DST_VERTEX_FIELD     = "dstVertexField"
  val RANK_FIELD           = "rankFiled"
  val BATCH: String        = "batch"
  val VID_AS_PROP: String  = "vidAsProp"
  val SRC_AS_PROP: String  = "srcAsProp"
  val DST_AS_PROP: String  = "dstAsProp"
  val RANK_AS_PROP: String = "rankAsProp"
  val WRITE_MODE: String   = "writeMode"

  val DEFAULT_TIMEOUT: Int            = 3000
  val DEFAULT_USER_NAME: String       = "root"
  val DEFAULT_PASSWD: String          = "nebula"

  val DEFAULT_ENABLE_GRAPH_SSL: Boolean   = false
  val DEFAULT_ENABLE_META_SSL: Boolean    = false
  val DEFAULT_ENABLE_STORAGE_SSL: Boolean = false

  val DEFAULT_LIMIT: Int = 1000

  val DEFAULT_RATE_LIMIT: Long    = 1024L
  val DEFAULT_RATE_TIME_OUT: Long = 100
  val DEFAULT_POLICY: String      = null
  val DEFAULT_BATCH: Int          = 1000


  val EMPTY_STRING: String = ""

About the Author

Wey Gu is the Developer Advocate of Nebula Graph. He is passionate about spreading graph technology to the developer community and trying his best to make distributed graph databases more accessible. Follow him on Twitter.


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