c++ – transform utf-8 lowercase to uppercase

Check/Test my code https://repl.it/@JomaCorpFX/ToUpperToLower#main.cpp

For Windows with correct drawing of glyphs/unicode chars(ex. “🐶”), I recomend run your program with the new Windows Terminal.

Read this about Windows’s console
Windows Command-Line: Unicode and UTF-8 Output Text Buffer

UPDATE: Added CYGWIN’s code and some fixes.

Code


#include <iostream>
#include <set>
#include <string>
#include <locale>

// WINDOWS
#if (_WIN32)
#include <Windows.h>
#include <conio.h>
#define WINDOWS_PLATFORM 1
#define DLLCALL STDCALL
#define DLLIMPORT _declspec(dllimport)
#define DLLEXPORT _declspec(dllexport)
#define DLLPRIVATE
#define NOMINMAX

#elif __CYGWIN__
#define CYGWIN_PLATFORM 1
#include <windows.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <termios.h>
#define DLLCALL CDECL
#define DLLIMPORT
#define DLLEXPORT __attribute__((visibility("default")))
#define DLLPRIVATE __attribute__((visibility("hidden")))
#define CoTaskMemAlloc(p) malloc(p)
#define CoTaskMemFree(p) free(p)

//EMSCRIPTEN
#elif defined(__EMSCRIPTEN__)
#include <emscripten/emscripten.h>
#include <emscripten/bind.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <termios.h>
#define EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM 1
#define DLLCALL
#define DLLIMPORT
#define DLLEXPORT __attribute__((visibility("default")))
#define DLLPRIVATE __attribute__((visibility("hidden")))

// LINUX - Ubuntu, Fedora, , Centos, Debian, RedHat
#elif (__LINUX__ || __gnu_linux__ || __linux__ || __linux || linux)
#define LINUX_PLATFORM 1
#include <unistd.h>
#include <termios.h>
#define DLLCALL CDECL
#define DLLIMPORT
#define DLLEXPORT __attribute__((visibility("default")))
#define DLLPRIVATE __attribute__((visibility("hidden")))
#define CoTaskMemAlloc(p) malloc(p)
#define CoTaskMemFree(p) free(p)

//ANDROID
#elif (__ANDROID__ || ANDROID)
#define ANDROID_PLATFORM 1
#define DLLCALL
#define DLLIMPORT
#define DLLEXPORT __attribute__((visibility("default")))
#define DLLPRIVATE __attribute__((visibility("hidden")))

//MACOS
#elif defined(__APPLE__)
#include <unistd.h>
#include <termios.h>
#define DLLCALL
#define DLLIMPORT
#define DLLEXPORT __attribute__((visibility("default")))
#define DLLPRIVATE __attribute__((visibility("hidden")))
#include "TargetConditionals.h"
#if TARGET_OS_IPHONE && TARGET_IPHONE_SIMULATOR
#define IOS_SIMULATOR_PLATFORM 1
#elif TARGET_OS_IPHONE
#define IOS_PLATFORM 1
#elif TARGET_OS_MAC
#define MACOS_PLATFORM 1
#else

#endif

#endif

typedef std::string String;
typedef std::wstring WString;

#define EMPTY_STRING u8""s
#define EMPTY_WSTRING L""s

using namespace std::literals::string_literals;

class Strings
{
public:
    static String WideStringToString(const WString &wstr)
    {
        if (wstr.empty())
        {
            return String();
        }
        size_t pos;
        size_t begin = 0;
        String ret;
#if WINDOWS_PLATFORM 

        int size;
        pos = wstr.find(static_cast<wchar_t>(0), begin);
        while (pos != WString::npos && begin < wstr.length())
        {
            WString segment = WString(&wstr[begin], pos - begin);
            size = WideCharToMultiByte(CP_UTF8, WC_ERR_INVALID_CHARS, &segment[0], segment.size(), NULL, 0, NULL, NULL);

            String converted = String(size, 0);
            WideCharToMultiByte(CP_UTF8, WC_ERR_INVALID_CHARS, &segment[0], segment.size(), &converted[0], converted.size(), NULL, NULL);
            ret.append(converted);
            ret.append({0});
            begin = pos + 1;
            pos = wstr.find(static_cast<wchar_t>(0), begin);
        }
        if (begin <= wstr.length())
        {
            WString segment = WString(&wstr[begin], wstr.length() - begin);
            size = WideCharToMultiByte(CP_UTF8, WC_ERR_INVALID_CHARS, &segment[0], segment.size(), NULL, 0, NULL, NULL);
            String converted = String(size, 0);
            WideCharToMultiByte(CP_UTF8, WC_ERR_INVALID_CHARS, &segment[0], segment.size(), &converted[0], converted.size(), NULL, NULL);
            ret.append(converted);
        }
#elif LINUX_PLATFORM || MACOS_PLATFORM || EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM || CYGWIN_PLATFORM
        size_t size;
        pos = wstr.find(static_cast<wchar_t>(0), begin);
        while (pos != WString::npos && begin < wstr.length())
        {
            WString segment = WString(&wstr[begin], pos - begin);
            size = wcstombs(nullptr, segment.c_str(), 0);
            String converted = String(size, 0);
            wcstombs(&converted[0], segment.c_str(), converted.size());
            ret.append(converted);
            ret.append({0});
            begin = pos + 1;
            pos = wstr.find(static_cast<wchar_t>(0), begin);
        }
        if (begin <= wstr.length())
        {
            WString segment = WString(&wstr[begin], wstr.length() - begin);
            size = wcstombs(nullptr, segment.c_str(), 0);
            String converted = String(size, 0);
            wcstombs(&converted[0], segment.c_str(), converted.size());
            ret.append(converted);
        }
#else
        static_assert(false, "Unknown Platform");
#endif
        return ret;
    }

    static WString StringToWideString(const String &str)
    {
        if (str.empty())
        {
            return WString();
        }

        size_t pos;
        size_t begin = 0;
        WString ret;
#if WINDOWS_PLATFORM
        int size = 0;
        pos = str.find(static_cast<char>(0), begin);
        while (pos != std::string::npos)
        {
            std::string segment = std::string(&str[begin], pos - begin);
            std::wstring converted = std::wstring(segment.size() + 1, 0);
            size = MultiByteToWideChar(CP_UTF8, MB_ERR_INVALID_CHARS, &segment[0], segment.size(), &converted[0], converted.length());
            converted.resize(size);
            ret.append(converted);
            ret.append({0});
            begin = pos + 1;
            pos = str.find(static_cast<char>(0), begin);
        }
        if (begin < str.length())
        {
            std::string segment = std::string(&str[begin], str.length() - begin);
            std::wstring converted = std::wstring(segment.size() + 1, 0);
            size = MultiByteToWideChar(CP_UTF8, MB_ERR_INVALID_CHARS, segment.c_str(), segment.size(), &converted[0], converted.length());
            converted.resize(size);
            ret.append(converted);
        }

#elif LINUX_PLATFORM || MACOS_PLATFORM || EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM || CYGWIN_PLATFORM
        size_t size;
        pos = str.find(static_cast<char>(0), begin);
        while (pos != String::npos)
        {
            String segment = String(&str[begin], pos - begin);
            WString converted = WString(segment.size(), 0);
            size = mbstowcs(&converted[0], &segment[0], converted.size());
            converted.resize(size);
            ret.append(converted);
            ret.append({0});
            begin = pos + 1;
            pos = str.find(static_cast<char>(0), begin);
        }
        if (begin < str.length())
        {
            String segment = String(&str[begin], str.length() - begin);
            WString converted = WString(segment.size(), 0);
            size = mbstowcs(&converted[0], &segment[0], converted.size());
            converted.resize(size);
            ret.append(converted);
        }
#else
        static_assert(false, "Unknown Platform");
#endif
        return ret;
    }

    static WString ToUpper(const WString &data)
    {
        WString result = data;
        auto &f = std::use_facet<std::ctype<wchar_t>>(std::locale());

        f.toupper(&result[0], &result[0] + result.size());
        return result;
    }

    static String ToUpper(const String &data)
    {
        return WideStringToString(ToUpper(StringToWideString(data)));
    }

    static WString ToLower(const WString &data)
    {
        WString result = data;
        auto &f = std::use_facet<std::ctype<wchar_t>>(std::locale());
        f.tolower(&result[0], &result[0] + result.size());
        return result;
    }

    static String ToLower(const String &data)
    {
        return WideStringToString(ToLower(StringToWideString(data)));
    }
};

enum class ConsoleTextStyle
{
    DEFAULT = 0,
    BOLD = 1,
    FAINT = 2,
    ITALIC = 3,
    UNDERLINE = 4,
    SLOW_BLINK = 5,
    RAPID_BLINK = 6,
    REVERSE = 7,
};

enum class ConsoleForeground
{
    DEFAULT = 39,
    BLACK = 30,
    DARK_RED = 31,
    DARK_GREEN = 32,
    DARK_YELLOW = 33,
    DARK_BLUE = 34,
    DARK_MAGENTA = 35,
    DARK_CYAN = 36,
    GRAY = 37,
    DARK_GRAY = 90,
    RED = 91,
    GREEN = 92,
    YELLOW = 93,
    BLUE = 94,
    MAGENTA = 95,
    CYAN = 96,
    WHITE = 97
};

enum class ConsoleBackground
{
    DEFAULT = 49,
    BLACK = 40,
    DARK_RED = 41,
    DARK_GREEN = 42,
    DARK_YELLOW = 43,
    DARK_BLUE = 44,
    DARK_MAGENTA = 45,
    DARK_CYAN = 46,
    GRAY = 47,
    DARK_GRAY = 100,
    RED = 101,
    GREEN = 102,
    YELLOW = 103,
    BLUE = 104,
    MAGENTA = 105,
    CYAN = 106,
    WHITE = 107
};

class Console
{
private:
    static void EnableVirtualTermimalProcessing()
    {
#if WINDOWS_PLATFORM
        HANDLE hOut = GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE);
        DWORD dwMode = 0;
        GetConsoleMode(hOut, &dwMode);
        if (!(dwMode & ENABLE_VIRTUAL_TERMINAL_PROCESSING))
        {
            dwMode |= ENABLE_VIRTUAL_TERMINAL_PROCESSING;
            SetConsoleMode(hOut, dwMode);
        }
#endif
    }

    static void ResetTerminalFormat()
    {
        std::cout << u8"33[0m";
    }

    static void SetVirtualTerminalFormat(ConsoleForeground foreground, ConsoleBackground background, std::set<ConsoleTextStyle> styles)
    {
        String format = u8"33[";
        format.append(std::to_string(static_cast<int>(foreground)));
        format.append(u8";");
        format.append(std::to_string(static_cast<int>(background)));
        if (styles.size() > 0)
        {
            for (auto it = styles.begin(); it != styles.end(); ++it)
            {
                format.append(u8";");
                format.append(std::to_string(static_cast<int>(*it)));
            }
        }
        format.append(u8"m");
        std::cout << format;
    }

public:
    static void Clear()
    {

#if WINDOWS_PLATFORM 
        std::system(u8"cls");
#elif LINUX_PLATFORM || defined MACOS_PLATFORM || CYGWIN_PLATFORM
        std::system(u8"clear");
#elif EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM
        emscripten::val::global()["console"].call<void>(u8"clear");
#else
        static_assert(false, "Unknown Platform");
#endif
    }

    static void Write(const String &s, ConsoleForeground foreground = ConsoleForeground::DEFAULT, ConsoleBackground background = ConsoleBackground::DEFAULT, std::set<ConsoleTextStyle> styles = {})
    {
#ifndef EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM
        EnableVirtualTermimalProcessing();
        SetVirtualTerminalFormat(foreground, background, styles);
#endif
        String str = s;
#if WINDOWS_PLATFORM
        WString unicode = Strings::StringToWideString(str);
        WriteConsole(GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE), unicode.c_str(), static_cast<DWORD>(unicode.length()), nullptr, nullptr);
#elif defined LINUX_PLATFORM || defined MACOS_PLATFORM || EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM || CYGWIN_PLATFORM
        std::cout << str;
#else
        static_assert(false, "Unknown Platform");
#endif

#ifndef EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM
        ResetTerminalFormat();
#endif
    }

    static void WriteLine(const String &s, ConsoleForeground foreground = ConsoleForeground::DEFAULT, ConsoleBackground background = ConsoleBackground::DEFAULT, std::set<ConsoleTextStyle> styles = {})
    {
        Write(s, foreground, background, styles);
        std::cout << std::endl;
    }

    static void Write(const WString &s, ConsoleForeground foreground = ConsoleForeground::DEFAULT, ConsoleBackground background = ConsoleBackground::DEFAULT, std::set<ConsoleTextStyle> styles = {})
    {
#ifndef EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM
        EnableVirtualTermimalProcessing();
        SetVirtualTerminalFormat(foreground, background, styles);
#endif
        WString str = s;

#if WINDOWS_PLATFORM 
        WriteConsole(GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE), str.c_str(), static_cast<DWORD>(str.length()), nullptr, nullptr);
#elif LINUX_PLATFORM || MACOS_PLATFORM || EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM || CYGWIN_PLATFORM
        std::cout << Strings::WideStringToString(str);
#else
        static_assert(false, "Unknown Platform");
#endif

#ifndef EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM
        ResetTerminalFormat();
#endif
    }

    static void WriteLine(const WString &s, ConsoleForeground foreground = ConsoleForeground::DEFAULT, ConsoleBackground background = ConsoleBackground::DEFAULT, std::set<ConsoleTextStyle> styles = {})
    {
        Write(s, foreground, background, styles);
        std::cout << std::endl;
    }

    static void WriteLine()
    {
        std::cout << std::endl;
    }

    static void Pause()
    {
        char c;
        do
        {
            c = getchar();
            std::cout << "Press Key " << std::endl;
        } while (c != 64);
        std::cout << "KeyPressed" << std::endl;
    }

    static int PauseAny(bool printWhenPressed = false, ConsoleForeground foreground = ConsoleForeground::DEFAULT, ConsoleBackground background = ConsoleBackground::DEFAULT, std::set<ConsoleTextStyle> styles = {})
    {
        int ch;
#ifdef WINDOWS_PLATFORM
        ch = _getch();
#elif LINUX_PLATFORM || MACOS_PLATFORM || EMSCRIPTEN_PLATFORM || CYGWIN_PLATFORM
        struct termios oldt, newt;
        tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
        newt = oldt;
        newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
        tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
        ch = getchar();
        tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
#else
        static_assert(false, "Unknown Platform");
#endif
        if (printWhenPressed)
        {
            Console::Write(String(1, ch), foreground, background, styles);
        }
        return ch;
    }
};

int main()
{
#if CYGWIN_PLATFORM
    /*
    using c++ std::locale::global(). It generates an error.
    
    terminate called after throwing an instance of 'std::runtime_error'
    what():  locale::facet::_S_create_c_locale name not valid

    it need to be fixed.
    */
    std::setlocale(LC_ALL, u8"en_US.UTF8"); //Calling clasic C locale function all OK. Needed for Console::WriteLine on Linux. If not present throws an error and if not is a unicode locale throws an error. It need to be fixed.
#else
    std::locale::global(std::locale(u8"en_US.UTF8")); //Required for Linux. Error when run without set unicode locale. This need to be investigated and fixed.
#endif
    String dataStr = u8"Zoë Saldaña played in La maldición del padre Cardona. ëèñ αω óóChloë";
    WString dataWStr = L"Zoë Saldaña played in La maldición del padre Cardona. ëèñ αω óóChloë";
    Console::WriteLine(dataStr);
    Console::WriteLine(dataWStr);
    dataStr = Strings::ToUpper(dataStr);
    dataWStr = Strings::ToUpper(dataWStr);
    Console::WriteLine(dataStr);
    Console::WriteLine(dataWStr);
    dataStr = Strings::ToLower(dataStr);
    dataWStr = Strings::ToLower(dataWStr);
    Console::WriteLine(dataStr);
    Console::WriteLine(dataWStr);

    //Another examples
    WString string0(L"hello there είναι απλά ένα κείμενο χωρίς");
    WString string1(L"hallo Привет");
    WString string2(L"Hallo Привет");
    WString string3(L"HALLO ПРИВЕТ");
    WString string4 = L"Contrairement à une opinion répandue 🐶";

    Console::WriteLine(u8"█ Original");
    Console::WriteLine(string0);
    Console::WriteLine(string1);
    Console::WriteLine(string2);
    Console::WriteLine(string3);
    Console::WriteLine(string4);

    Console::WriteLine(u8"█ ToUpper");
    string0 = Strings::ToUpper(string0);
    string1 = Strings::ToUpper(string1);
    string2 = Strings::ToUpper(string2);
    string3 = Strings::ToUpper(string3);
    string4 = Strings::ToUpper(string4);
    Console::WriteLine(string0);
    Console::WriteLine(string1);
    Console::WriteLine(string2);
    Console::WriteLine(string3);
    Console::WriteLine(string4);

    Console::WriteLine(u8"█ ToLower");
    string0 = Strings::ToLower(string0);
    string1 = Strings::ToLower(string1);
    string2 = Strings::ToLower(string2);
    string3 = Strings::ToLower(string3);
    string4 = Strings::ToLower(string4);
    Console::WriteLine(string0);
    Console::WriteLine(string1);
    Console::WriteLine(string2);
    Console::WriteLine(string3);
    Console::WriteLine(string4);

    Console::WriteLine(u8"Press any key to exit"s, ConsoleForeground::DARK_GRAY);
    Console::PauseAny();

    return 0;
}

Output

Zoë Saldaña played in La maldición del padre Cardona. ëèñ αω óóChloë
Zoë Saldaña played in La maldición del padre Cardona. ëèñ αω óóChloë
ZOË SALDAÑA PLAYED IN LA MALDICIÓN DEL PADRE CARDONA. ËÈÑ ΑΩ ÓÓCHLOË
ZOË SALDAÑA PLAYED IN LA MALDICIÓN DEL PADRE CARDONA. ËÈÑ ΑΩ ÓÓCHLOË
zoë saldaña played in la maldición del padre cardona. ëèñ αω óóchloë
zoë saldaña played in la maldición del padre cardona. ëèñ αω óóchloë
█ Original
hello there είναι απλά ένα κείμενο χωρίς
hallo Привет
Hallo Привет
HALLO ПРИВЕТ
Contrairement à une opinion répandue 🐶
█ ToUpper
HELLO THERE ΕΊΝΑΙ ΑΠΛΆ ΈΝΑ ΚΕΊΜΕΝΟ ΧΩΡΊΣ
HALLO ПРИВЕТ
HALLO ПРИВЕТ
HALLO ПРИВЕТ
CONTRAIREMENT À UNE OPINION RÉPANDUE 🐶
█ ToLower
hello there είναι απλά ένα κείμενο χωρίσ
hallo привет
hallo привет
hallo привет
contrairement à une opinion répandue 🐶
Press any key to exit

Compiled with Visual C++ compiler – Powershell and CMD’s output using Windows Terminal – Correct drawing ✔️


Compiled with Visual C++ compiler – pure cmd’s output – Partial drawing ❗

cmd


Compiled with Visual C++ compiler – pure PowerShell’s output – Partial drawing ❗

pwsh


Compiled with Clang++ in WSL Ubuntu 20.04 – Visual Studio Code’s output – Correct drawing ✔️

wsl


Compiled with g++(Cygwin) – Visual Studio code’s Output + CygwinTerminal’s output + Windows Terminal’s output – Correct drawing ✔️ different glyps rendering

all


Compiled with Visual C++ compiler – Visual Studio 2019’s output – Correct drawing ✔️

vs

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